1. Linux and UNIX are two of the most popular operating systems for servers and networking.
2. They are both open source, which means that they are free to use and modify.
3. Linux is more widely used than UNIX, but both have their advantages and disadvantages.
4. Here are 10 FAQs on Linux and UNIX administration of networking and cloud computing.
What is Linux
In computing, the term “Linux” refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel. This includes distributions such as Debian, Fedora and Ubuntu.
The name “Linux” comes from the Linux kernel, originally written by Finnish programmer Linus Torvalds. Linux is free and open source software. This means that anyone can use it and contribute to its development.
Linux is widely used in servers, mainframes, supercomputers and embedded systems. It is also popular with hobbyists and ‘tinkerers’ who enjoy building their own computers from scratch.
The Linux kernel is a versatile and robust piece of software that forms the core of many different types of computer system. From the smallest embedded system to the largest supercomputer, Linux has the power and flexibility to meet the needs of a wide range of users.
What is UNIX
UNIX is a multitasking, multi-user computer operating system that was developed in the early 1970s. UNIX is portable, meaning that it can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, including both mainframes and personal computers. UNIX is also scalable, meaning that it can be used on systems with a wide range of processor speeds and memory sizes.
UNIX is widely used by businesses and organizations around the world due to its stability and flexibility. UNIX systems can be easily customized to meet the specific needs of an organization, and they are often less expensive to maintain than other types of systems. Additionally, UNIX systems can be seamlessly integrated into existing network environments.
If your business is looking for a reliable and flexible computer operating system, UNIX is a great option to consider.
What are the differences between Linux and UNIX
Linux is a free and open-source operating system that was created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is based on the Unix operating system and can be run on a wide variety of hardware, including personal computers, servers, mainframes, and embedded devices.
Unix is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The most popular versions of Unix are macOS by Apple Inc., AIX by IBM, HP-UX by Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Solaris by Oracle Corporation.
Both Linux and Unix are versatile operating systems that can be used for a variety of purposes. However, there are some key differences between the two.
One of the biggest differences is that Linux is free and open-source, while most versions of Unix are proprietary. This means that anyone can view and modify the source code of Linux, whereas with Unix only the company that owns it can make changes.
Another difference is that Linux can be run on a wider range of hardware than Unix. Linux is designed to be portable, meaning it can be installed on many different types of devices. Unix, on the other hand, is usually only found on high-end servers and workstations.
Finally, Linux generally has more robust security features than Unix. This is because Linux is often used in server environments where security is critical, whereas Unix is more commonly found in desktop environments.
How do I administer a Linux server
Assuming you would like a tutorial on administering a Linux server:
To log in to a Linux server, you will need the IP address or domain name of the server, as well as your username and password. If you do not have this information, you will need to contact your hosting provider. Once you have this information, open a terminal window and type in the following command:
$ ssh [username]@[server_IP_or_domain]
You will then be prompted for your password. Type it in and hit Enter. If this is your first time logging in, you may see a message about the authenticity of the host. Type yes and hit Enter to continue.
Now that you are logged in, you can begin administering your server.
There are a few basic commands that you will need to know in order to administer your Linux server. These commands are used for everything from creating and deleting files to changing permissions and ownership.
pwd – This command stands for “print working directory” and will show you the path of the current directory you are in.
ls – This command lists all of the files and directories in the current directory.
cd – This command stands for “change directory” and allows you to move around the file system. For example, if you want to move from the current directory to the /home directory, you would type in cd /home.
mkdir – This command allows you to create a new directory. For example, if you want to create a directory called “test”, you would type in mkdir test.
rmdir – This command allows you to delete an empty directory. For example, if you want to delete the “test” directory, you would type in rmdir test.
rm – This command allows you to delete a file. For example, if you want to delete a file called “test.txt”, you would type in rm test.txt.
mv – This command allows you to move or rename a file or directory. For example, if you want to rename the “test” directory to “testing”, you would type in mv test testing.
cp – This command allows you to copy a file or directory. For example, if you want to copy the “test” directory, you would type in cp -r test test_copy. The -r option stands for recursive and is necessary when copying directories since it tells the cp command to copy not only the directory itself, but also all of its contents.
chmod – This command allows you to change file permissions. File permissions determine who is allowed to read, write, and execute a file. For more information on file permissions, see this article: https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/understanding-linux-file-permissions
These are just a few of the most basic commands that you will need to know in order to administer your Linux server. For more information on Linux commands, see this article: https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/an-introduction-to-linux-command-line
How do I administer a UNIX server
Assuming you would like a general explanation of how to administer a Unix server:
There are many ways to administer a Unix server, as there are many different types of Unix servers. However, most administration tasks can be accomplished using a few basic tools.
The most important tool for administering a Unix server is the command line interface (CLI). The CLI is a text-based interface that allows users to enter commands to perform various tasks. To use the CLI, you must first connect to the server using a terminal emulator such as PuTTY. Once connected, you will be able to enter commands to view and modify files, run programs, etc.
Another important tool for administering a Unix server is a file transfer program such as FileZilla. This program allows you to transfer files between your local computer and the server. This can be useful for transferring configuration files, website files, etc.
Finally, it is also important to have some knowledge of Unix commands. While the GUI tools mentioned above can be used for most tasks, there are some tasks that can only be performed using Unix commands. For example, if you need to change the permissions on a file, you will need to use the chmod command. If you need to view log files, you will need to use the grep command. Learning some basic Unix commands will allow you to perform more advanced tasks on your server.
What is cloud computing
Cloud computing is a type of internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services). This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
On-demand self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider.
Broad network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).
Resource pooling: The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines.
Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned in response to consumer demand, allowing for quick scaling up or down of resources. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear infinite and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time.
Measured service: Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, reported, and billed providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through either a thin client interface, such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email), or a program interface. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.
Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including networks, servers, operating systems, or storage but has control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment.
Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems Firewalls , storage , deployed applications ,and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).
Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization More information on Private clouds . It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise .
Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations More information on Community Clouds . It may be managed by an organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise .
Public cloud: The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public More information about Public Clouds or large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services .
Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private , community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together , offering the benefits of multiple deployment models More information about Hybrid Clouds .
What are the benefits of cloud computing
There are many benefits of cloud computing. Perhaps the most obvious benefit is that it can help reduce IT costs. With cloud computing, businesses can avoid the high costs of purchasing and maintaining their own on-premises hardware and software. Instead, they can use a pay-as-you-go model to access cloud-based resources on an as-needed basis.
Another benefit of cloud computing is that it can improve business agility. With on-premises infrastructure, businesses typically have to wait weeks or even months to provision new resources. With cloud computing, they can do so in minutes or hours. This can be a major advantage for businesses that need to rapidly scale up or down their operations in response to changing market conditions.
Finally, cloud computing can improve business resilience. On-premises infrastructure is vulnerable to outages caused by factors such as power failures, natural disasters, and network disruptions. By contrast, cloud-based resources are often housed in multiple data centers located in different parts of the world. This makes it much less likely that an outage will affect all of your resources at once.
Overall, cloud computing can offer significant benefits to businesses in terms of cost savings, agility, and resilience.
How do I set up a cloud computing environment
There are many cloud computing platforms available today, such as Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Platform, and Microsoft Azure. Setting up a cloud computing environment can be a complex process, depending on the needs of your organization. In general, you will need to select a cloud provider, choose the appropriate services for your needs, and set up security and networking.
What are some common issues with cloud computing
There are a few common issues that can arise when using cloud computing, such as data breaches, data loss, and security vulnerabilities. While these issues can be concerning, there are steps that can be taken to help mitigate them. For example, encrypting data and using strong passwords can help to protect information stored in the cloud. Additionally, keeping backups of important data can ensure that it is not lost if something should happen to the cloud system.
How do I troubleshoot networking issues on Linux or UNIX
If you’re having networking issues on Linux or UNIX, there are a few things you can do to troubleshoot the problem. First, check to make sure that your network interface is up and running. If it’s not, you can use the ifconfig command to bring it up. Next, check your routing table to make sure that your system is able to route traffic to the correct destination. You can use the route command to view and modify your routing table. Finally, check your firewall settings to ensure that you’re not blocking any necessary traffic.